Stages of heart failure
Posted by dkwinter

Stage A

  • high risk for heart failure, but without structural heart disease or symptoms
  • risk factors include: DM, HTN, exposure to cardiotoxic drugs


Stage B

  • structural heart disease, but without signs or symptoms of heart failure
  • e.g. patient with


Stage C

  • structural heart disease with prior or current symptoms of heart failure


Stage D

  • heart failure symptoms at rest or refractory end-stage heart failure